Pushuang 譜雙 / 谱双 - Hong Zun 洪遵 - 1151
In Pushuang, a book in 5 chapters, Hong Zun (1120-1174) wrote : "Shuanglu 雙陸 began in Western India 西竺, and arrived in China during the Wei dynasty of the Cao family (220-265), flourishing during the Liang, Chen, Qi, Sui, and Tang dynasties (i.e from 502 to 907)."
Pushuang appears in the collection Xinshang Bian 欣賞編 compiled by Shen Jin 沈津 in 1511.
It describes the regional Shuanglu variants according to 4 categories :
Some of the Northern and Guangzhou Shuanglu variants used the today's Backgammon starting position yet.
Northern Shuanglu 北雙陸 is played in 5 different ways described in chapter 2 of Pushuang.
Guangzhou Shuanglu 廣州雙陸 is played in 5 different ways described in chapter 3 of Pushuang.
Note : the Buddhist variant 佛雙陸 has no starting position (the players begin with the pawns in hands).
Southern Barbarians (the Nánfān) Shuanglu 南蕃雙陸 is played in 3 different ways described in chapter 4 of Pushuang.
Japanese Shuanglu 日本雙陸 or Eastern Barbarians (the Dongyi) Shuanglu 東夷雙陸 is described in chapiter 4 of Pushuang.