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Backgammon Timeline

1928 - Modern Backgammon

USA Bearing Off, Doublets, Gammon, Backgammon, Doubling Cube (1930)

1635 - Backgammon

England Bearing Off, Doublets (1665), Gammon (1819), Backgammon (1844)

1532 - Toutes Tables

France Bearing Off, Doublets (1698), "Partie Double" (1698)

1526 - Totae Tabulae


1508 - Irish

England Bearing Off

1300 - Nard

Middle East

1283 - Todas Tablas

Spain Bearing Off

1151 - Shuanglu

China Bearing Off

1130 - Golaka-Krida


With a board made of 24 points, 30 checkers, 2 dice and the same starting position, the Golaka-Krida (12th century) is very similar to modern backgammon.

    However, according to the description of Manasollasa, some important rules are missing and will appear later :

  • Bearing off (13th century), once a player has moved all of his 15 checkers into his home board, he may commence bearing off,

  • Doublets (17th century), a player who rolls doubles plays the numbers shown on the dice twice,

  • Gammon (17th century in France under the name "Partie Double"), if the winner has removed all his checkers and his opponent fails to bear off at least one checker, the winner scores twice the stakes,

  • Backgammon (19th century), if the winner has removed all his checkers and his opponent still has one or more checkers in the winner’s home board, or on the bar, the winner scores triple the current stake,

  • Doubling cube (20th century), at the start of his own turn, before throwing dice, a player may propose doubling the stakes by turning the cube.