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Pushuang 譜雙 / - Hong Zun 洪遵 - 1151

In Pushuang, a book in 5 chapters, Hong Zun (1120-1174) wrote : "Shuanglu 雙陸 began in Western India 西竺, and arrived in China during the Wei dynasty of the Cao family (220-265), flourishing during the Liang, Chen, Qi, Sui, and Tang dynasties (i.e from 502 to 907)."

Pushuang appears in the collection Xinshang Bian 欣賞編 compiled by Shen Jin 沈津 in 1511.

It describes the regional Shuanglu variants according to 4 categories :

Some of the Northern and Guangzhou Shuanglu variants used the today's Backgammon starting position yet.

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Northern Shuanglu

Northern Shuanglu 北雙陸 is played in 5 different ways described in chapter 2 of Pushuang.

Illustration of a Northern Shuanglu game 北雙陸

Starting position of 3 variants: Ping (also called Khitans variant 契丹), Dajian 打間 and Huihui 回回

Starting position of 2 variants: "3 bridges" 三梁 and "7 bridges" 七梁

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Guangzhou Shuanglu

Guangzhou Shuanglu 廣州雙陸 is played in 5 different ways described in chapter 3 of Pushuang.

Illustration of a Guangzhou Shuanglu game 廣州雙陸

Starting position of 3 variants: Luōyíng 啰赢, Xiazan 下囋 and "No Hit" 不打

Starting position of "3 stacks" variant 三堆

Note : the Buddhist variant 佛雙陸 has no starting position (the players begin with the pawns in hands).

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Southern Barbarians Shuanglu

Southern Barbarians (the Nánfān) Shuanglu 南蕃雙陸 is played in 3 different ways described in chapter 4 of Pushuang.

Illustration of a game of Shuanglu as played in Java
(variante Sijiaba 四架八 )

Starting position of 2 variants: Sijiaba 四架八 (played in Sumatra, Cambodia and Java) and Nanpi 南皮

 

Illustration of a Dazhi (arabic) Shuanglu game 大食雙陸

Starting position of Dazhi Shuanglu 大食雙陸

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Japanese Shuanglu

Japanese Shuanglu 日本雙陸 or Eastern Barbarians (the Dongyi) Shuanglu 東夷雙陸 is described in chapiter 4 of Pushuang.

Japanese Shuanglu board

Japanese Shuanglu board 日本雙陸